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Recently, our colleague Petrut Ionel Romeo, Technical Project Manager, Lasting Software held the presentation entitled Satellite Communication solution for Cellular backhaul, as part of Codecamp Timişoara, the autumn edition.

In what is actually a solid business case for satellite – based mobile communications, he outlined the importance of this technology and its 2 main current key purposes, in a way that would make it clear and palatable by non-specialists and technical people altogether.

We will briefly recap the main ideas, leaving aside the more technical content. Nevertheless, let your imagination add to this material the context of a busy, dynamic conference, and you will have the image of a great day…

 

Satellite – related facts

Satellites (communication and weather), are situated in the geostationary orbit. This is to make it easier for the Earth-based antennae to maintain continuous communication. A geostationary orbit allows for the position of the orbiting object to remain constant.  To a stationary observer from Earth, it seems motionless.

In time, the number of satellites placed in the geostationary orbit became high enough to justify the new ring system made by all these devices being called the Geostationary Satellite Belt.

Having to control and maintain sophisticated pieces of technology at such a remote distance is a huge task. There are specific challenges linked to the system of satellites surrounding the Earth. Although by developing the technology at an impressive rate, the previous reach, maneuver and management issues have been solved in ways that were not possible a while ago, the physical premises (and not only) make satellite technology a highly demanding field.

Satellites operate in extreme thermal conditions, risk being hit by space debris, face the hostility of radiation belts and so on. Perhaps the simplest challenge to understand of them all would be that satellites are remote devices, with a specific procedure in place in order to access, maintain and repair.

By taking a look at the distance-related communication challenges, we may consider how:

  • The Clarke belt (the part of space in the plane of the equator, designated implementation area for near-geostationary orbits) is about 36.000km above sea level;
  • When speaking of communication back and forth, we are dealing with 72000km
  • Taking into consideration the speed of light, the resulting delay in transmissions is of approximately 250-270ms

However, despite these challenges, communication satellites also have a few particular traits that put them above any other communication-enabling technology located on Earth.

The unmatchable advantages of the communication satellites

Satellites are extremely important because in certain locations and/or circumstances, the terrestrial communication infrastructure is inefficient or even completely out of range/function.

There are 2 major (and we may add critical) situations where only satellite-enabled communications can support the flow of necessary data and messages.

  1. Geographically-isolated or architecturally-isolated spots
  • Often in rural and remote areas fiber and microwave transmissions are unavailable, as there is no business interest
  • Satellite communications are also efficient in mountains, deserts, islands, in other areas difficult to reach due to the landforms and/or structure
  • This type of communications may be of use in order to relieve congested urban areas: stadiums, malls, markets, academic centers
  1. Situations that require a solid communication infrastructure for emergency response

Satellite can act as a trustworthy fiber backup, since fiber is not that reliable. Faced with earthquakes or other cataclysms, both landline and fiber systems are easily down, unlike satellite-enabled communications, which become crucial for keeping in touch, monitoring and intervening in such moments.

 

Communication Satellites Architecture Options

In accordance with their type and with the communication needs they have to meet, satellites usually feature one of the following main architectural types, when it comes to data transmissions:

  1. Point to point links
    • When there is a limited number of links
    • For nb interface, for example
    • For very high speed trunks: +300 mbps
  1. Hub and Star architecture
  • Multiplex on forward and return
  • Smaller remote equipment

 

Mobile backhaul: key considerations

Mobile backhaul (MBH) is the process of data and voice transportation from distributed network sites to the network core. It enables mobile users to access the main data centers that host the content and applications.

Terrestrial backhaul is the traditional method. For a long while mobile and satellites existed in parallel, due to the costs involved in satellite operations. Once the more recent advances in satellite technology reduced the bandwidth costs – for example High Throughput Satellites (HTS) managed to bring an up to 70 % saving – satellite backhaul became a viable, attractive solution which is about to gain traction.

What does the shift towards satellite backhaul involve, as far as the mobile communications are concerned?

  • Mobile networks: Quality of Service (QoS) and Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are key for Voice traffic, Data traffic, Signaling, Management
  • The mobile equipment: configured to accept higher satellite delay
  • Mobile traffic: needs to be optimized to lower the cost of satellite bandwidth

 

Mobile traffic optimization

As mentioned above, traffic needs optimization, in order to make the most efficient use of the satellite bandwidth. To that avail, here are a few possible methods for each of the following telecommunication infrastructure types:

  • 2G TDM: remove silence and idle channels
    • Optimization on Abis can bring up to 50% bandwidth gain
    • Gains on Ater, A link and nb interface as well
  • 2G IP, 3G, 4G: leverage compression for headers (small packets), and payload (data)
  • VoLTE: compression of internal stacks as well (within GTP tunnel)

 

*Additional feature: accelerating TCP in 4G

  • TCP traffic  – captured transparently within GTP tunnel, by using “protocol spoofing”
  • A mechanism that tries to send as much data as possible, as soon as possible
  • The protocol uses the alternative window size mechanism, with a larger window – to increase throughput (RFC 1323)
  • The protocol implements alternative acknowledgment mechanism, reducing number of ACKs.

 

The importance and requirements of the satellite solution

Mobile network operators considered satellite backhaul as an attractive option for a long time. This is due to it being the only option in extreme situations, either permanent (remote or congested spots), or temporary (cataclysms, catastrophes, major downtime incidents). While it used to be a cost-prohibitive solution, the advances in technology now open up this option.

The new opportunities come with their own specific traits and requirements:

  • Spectral efficiency is essential in reducing the cost of satellite bandwidth
  • Quality of Service (QoS) is the key to being able to fulfil the mobile operators’ tight requirements
  • Flexibility is important. It accommodates the multiple mobile technologies (2G, 3G, 4G), and the various network configurations (including the rural low power consumption phenomenon)
  • The technology allows for bandwidth sharing and dynamic adjustment to real-time traffic and weather conditions
  • Scalability, which is critical for:
    • Typical mobile backhaul network: 20 to 100 remote sites
    • Typical small cell network: 1000 sites
    • Increasingly, mobile operators also want other services to be hosted on the same satellite solution, e.g. enterprise service, thus resulting more remotes

 

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Tech

It’s hardly news that traditional telecom businesses are in a tight spot. Changing their portfolio or gradually fading away – here are the available alternatives.

The reason for this lies within the explosion of new types of services and new delivery methods. To go straight to the point – if video killed the radio star, the Internet gave few chances to the TV and classic telecommunications. Its own stronger and more ubiquitous relative – the IoT, is the final blow to the old Telco industry.

That is, only if the businesses don’t leverage the situation on their side. Since many of the important players in the field are now already implementing their chosen course change, the “if” became more of a “when”. It is to be expected that all Telco operators that want to stick with this industry will restructure their offers.

 

What does upgrading Telco have to do with software development?

 

“Operators need to create dynamic new business models” – article on the systemic telecoms crisis. The new models “could implement the technologies of deep traffic analysis (DPI), service virtualization that cloud models increasingly use. An important trend is the consolidation of the larger industry players and the saturation of the market”.

Same source continues: “However, telecom has a lot to develop. Free services stimulate the use of more complex tools and such services become sponsored. A good prospect, for example, is M2M services, because inter-machine communication can generate huge amounts of traffic”.

 

IoT demands telecom – software development business partnerships

 

Another ReadWrite article tackles the telecom – IoT relationship alone. Smart, intelligent things own the future. Each of them comes with associated software, applications and online platforms. The big effort is to create an integrated global environment.

The telecom players “should redefine their business strategies, including key offerings around IoT”. Also, moving up the IoT value chain is mandatory, and it starts with better, more in-demand offerings.

In summary, the article we browsed lays down a few guidelines:

– Provide IoT-customized offerings;

– Be prepared to protect the IoT data by using blockchain;

– Find out about “smart contracts” and adopt them asap;

– Use partnership for success and survival (examples are in the source-article).

 

Is your telecom company in need of this type of changes? Looking for the right software consultancy & development partner?

 

Remember that at LASTING Software, we:

…speed up the R&D process, reduce time to revenue and reduce burn rate, enabling you to achieve more with less, faster. We give you the ability to extend your reach into customers for only marginal cost, we enable you to access new revenue streams and allow you to manage contingency without growing headcount.

 

…adapt to your business’s needs:

  • We provide IT consultancy services that involve an initial assessment of your operational needs;
  • Our way of working ranges from fixed-cost projects to time & material projects;
  • The types of collaboration available include extension of the team, feature teams or entirely independent product teams;
  • We listen to your story. This way, we establish the issues to fix, the elements to improve and the best software-related choices;
  • Together, we design a plan that would best serve the requirements, and agree upon the software modules or solutions to implement and design;
  • We adapt the existing software, or develop the new software to suit each individual need.
  • We deliver our product on time. Next, we provide support in the implementation, user training, and post-implementation stages.
  • We value same room collaboration. Nothing surpasses the power of personal collaboration.

 

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